Terminology and Acronyms
#1
Like any highly technical field there are a lot of terms and acronyms used to describe things in IT and it can be confusing to read a publication about IT. To help you understand what you are reading better here is a list of terms and acronyms used in IT and what they mean.

  1. Information Technology (IT) - The term used to talk about technology related to communication and computing.
  2. Network - A network is simply a group of devices all connected together in a way that they can communicate with each other.
  3. Host - Usually a host is any computer on a network but sometimes can be other devices as well.
  4. Node - A node can also be any device connected to a network.
  5. Router - A device that is dedicated to routing network traffic to it's intended location (like a post office does with the mail).
  6. Switch - A device that extends a network in order to allow many Hosts to connect to the network.
  7. Local Area Network (LAN) - A specific kind of network that usually exists exclusively inside a home or business that connects all devices within the home or business.
  8. Wide Are Network (WAN) - A specific kind of network that usually exists exclusively outside a home or business. This network essentially connects all smaller networks into a larger network that is the internet.
  9. Wireless LAN (WLAN) - An extension of a LAN that allows Hosts to connect to a LAN wirelessly (WiFi).
  10. Server - A program that runs on a Host to provide services to other Hosts on a network. Sometimes servers also refer to the physical hardware that such a program may run on.
  11. Client - A program that runs on a Host that connects to a server to access it's services. Sometimes clients also refer to the physical hardware that such a program may run on such as a laptop or a cellphone.
  12. Ethernet - A set of standards that defines how devices may communicated over a wired connection. Ethernet can be used over different mediums such as Coaxial Cable, Unshielded Twisted Pair cable, and even fiber optic cable.
  13. Power over Ethernet (PoE) - A technology that allows certain devices to be powered externally by an ethernet cable.
  14. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - This term is used to describe how ethernet cables are made. It refers to the fact that there are multiple pairs of wires within a cable, and each pair is twisted together. There are also Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables that also have a foil shielding wrapped around the twisted pairs.
  15. Demarcation Point (Demarc) - The demarcation point is the point where cable or dsl connection enters a property and also the point where the company providing the service no longer takes responsibility for problems occurring on the property. A good example of this would be a cable box on the outside wall of a house.
  16. Hard Drive Disk (HDD) - A device that uses a metallic disk to store information in the form of magnetic energy.
  17. Solid State Drive (SSD) - A device that stores information in flash memory.
  18. Redundant Array of Inexpensive (Independent) Disks (RAID) - A technology that allows multiple HDDs or SSDs to be combined together to increase their overall capacity as well as provide fault tolerance to a system.
  19. Network Attached Storage (NAS) - A Host that is connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing file storage to all Hosts on the network.
  20. Storage Area Network (SAN) - A special type of network that allows storage resources to be pooled into a redundant network that Hosts may access as if they were singular drives.
  21. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) - A power supply with an internal battery that can keep Hosts running for short times during power outages.
  22. Virtual Machine (VM) - A virtual copy of an entire host machine. A virtual machine runs within a special program that emulates a physical computer system.
  23. Hypervisor - A special type of operating system that is designed to run and manage multiple virtual machines on a single host.
  24. Host Bus Adapter (HBA) - A Host Bus Adapter is generally a PCIe add on card that adds extra functionality to a host. Often times HBAs are network interface cards or adapters for storage connections such as SAS, Fiber Channel, or Infiniband.
  25. Network Interface Card (NIC) - A Network Interface Card adds additional network connections to a host. NICs can add Coax, UTP, or fiber network connections and often add more than one connection per card.
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#2
Added a few more terms about virtualization.
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